#091 How to properly power the ESP8266 modules

#091 How to properly power the ESP8266 modules


100 thoughts on “#091 How to properly power the ESP8266 modules”

  1. I ordered my ht7333 from one of your previous recommendations, and boy they work well with lipo's!! One thing that I experimented with was to power the ESP8266 from USB reliably/successfully – by using an 1000uF pre and 2200uF post with an ams3.3v regulator. I could finally built a custom pcb to flash (and run) my ESP's directly using my usb programmers – no more breadboard wiring or additional power sources, just plug and flash!!

  2. Well done again Andreas.
    Quick question: what's the trick to get bare bones ESP12 or ESP07 running?
    I can flash them but keep getting watchdog errors all the time (e.g. "ets Jan 8 2013,rst cause:4, boot mode:(3,6) wdt reset load 0x4010f000, len 1384, room 16 tail 8 chksum 0x2d csum 0x2d v09f0c112"). Nodemcu runs well but ESP12 and ESP07 in minimal configuration does not. Is the capacitor that critical? – I only have 47uF across 3.3V and GND.

  3. Thanks Andreas for your quick response.
    I ran the simplest Blink sketch:

    void setup() {
    Serial.begin(115200);
    Serial.println("setup");
    }
    void loop() {
    Serial.println("loop");
    delay(3000);
    }

    I use most common power supply "MB102 Breadboard Power Supply Module 3.3V/5V"
    NodeMCU v2 , NodeMCU v3, Wemos D1 mini run without any problem. Both bare bone ESP12E and ESP07 give me the same watchdog problem.
    They have been wired as per:
    https://github.com/esp8266/Arduino/blob/master/doc/boards.md#minimal-hardware-setup-for-bootloading-and-usage

  4. I added a quite big electrolytic capacitor 4700uF right between Vcc and Gnd on my bare bones ESP07.
    Adding yield(); in loop didn’t help – still watchdog reset every 8 sec. I don’t get any print from setup() – I guess it crushes before executing Serial.println("setup");

    However I have found a great hint at http://community.blynk.cc/t/solved-esp8266-nodemcu-v1-0-and-wdt-resets/7047/12
    and have added 2 lines of code into setup()
    ESP.wdtDisable();
    ESP.wdtEnable(WDTO_8S);
    This solved the problem (as long as I have big capacitor in place).

    My findings in summary:
    In order to get the bare bones ESP07 working I had to do two things:
    1. Add a big capacitor between Vcc and Gnd (e.g. 4700uF),
    2. Add two lines of code into setup() as stated above.
    Both above things have to be implemented for my ESP07 to work.

    P.S. For bigger programs I might need to add third line of code into loop(): ESP.wdtFeed();
    I don’t know yet.

    Thanks a lot Andreas for your quick response and great help.

  5. Thank you for your great videos. They are inspiration to me. BTW: Did you done any measurement of power consumption using a a different TX power levels? I'm still waiting for my modules, so I can't do any measurement yet.

  6. Hello, great video again! Have you take a look at the ESP8285? This ESP has build in flash and is smaller, so suits better for use for battery powered aplications.

  7. sir your channel is awesome. big fan. i have a question. how can i make an esp system which is connected to city power (here 220v) and a rechargable battery (for example 3.7v lipo cell). when the city electricity went out the battery kick in and continue to power up the esp. and when the city lights come back the esp will switch back to city electricity and the battery wil recharge and when the battery is full, stop recharging. thank you very much.

  8. Great video indeed. It gives good insight. I don't have such nice visualisation equipment, so it's nice to see those spikes and have them well-explained.
    Perhaps you can do a small follow-up, showing the impact of peripherals such as that rgb-led on your Witty Cloud board? Switching all leds on may cost 4x20mA. Could that induce a significant voltage drop (with potential instability)? Capacitors give protection for spikes, but not for long lasting drops due to the power consumption.

    Another thing: in my experimental solar powered nodes, I read the input voltage (using AnalogRead) to determine the battery state. The ESP-07 always gave a lower reading than the ESP-12E, perhaps due to the onboard LED. However, my ESP-07 seems to be less power-hungry an more stable than my 12E. Have you ever noticed the differences in various modules? (I still have to try other modules). (For both lower voltage may result in less stability).

  9. The voltage drops you are showing seem a bit extreme, compared to what I have seen.

    With the board you show at 10:34, I have 2 capacitors:
    100uF electrolytic across VCC and GND, (high side of the linear regulator)
    and 470uF across the VCC/GND pins of the actual module. (low side of the linear regulator)
    on the reverse, I have a 3.3v HT7333 (250mA LDO).

    I have not seen more then 25mV of voltage drop, even when transmitting large amounts of data.
    Maybe the high voltage drops you are seeing are coming from the high resistance of a bad breadboard/jumper wires?

  10. do you know a good and small AD-DC converter board (for exemple: 220Vac/5Vdc) that I can solder on PCB to power my ESP projects?

  11. Thanks Andreas, again, for a superb video! How about dropping the voltade from a lipo cell with a diod (0,5-0,7V) instead of a voltage regulator (together with a 1000uF cap)?

  12. hi Andreas — from your video it seems to imply that the Wemos D1 mini is well suited for low-power use, such as with a battery. I'm contemplating such a module and was also looking at the battery shield it came with. as I'm new to this, I have some questions I hope you can help me with:1. is the Wemos D1 suited for low-power or did I mishear what you said? if so I apologize2. your suggestion for using a powerbank connected to the wall outlet is superb. I'll most likely go that route to test out my project. I was wondering, though, if it would be more prudent to simply plug in the powerbank directly to the usb port, or should it be through the shield? thanks again

  13. I am using an ESP-01 Black, I am having a problem in powering it the right way, I tried several things but with no luck, can you give an option, that is cheap and easy to power it, so it can function with any problems. thanks in advance!

  14. At 8:55 just to be clear: Are you saying that running a NodeMCU board with the USB port as power supply will make the board unstable and lead to random crashes? If so, that would be an unacceptable design for these board!

  15. i appreciate the time and effort you put into this presentation. i'm a beginner and you're greatly assisting me with my understanding of electronics. thank you.

  16. Because there is too much information I think that you should use a summary table at the end where all options are clearly summarized, otherwise we get a little lost… Write more and talk less 🙂

  17. This is all really good stuff, as I have had so many problems previously due to inadequacies in my power provisions for the ESP8266. One question I have re the HT7333, which seems attractive as a regulator for battery power, due to its very low drop out; is its maximum current of 250ma a bit marginal for the ESP8266?

  18. Bartłomiej Czerwiński

    Hi Andreas,
    I have a question which is related to ESP8266 power consumption AND coding. I was wondering how much programming in C using Espressif SDK is better than programming in Arduino IDE in a sense of writing energy efficient programs. Have you compared maybe these two "coding routines"? Of course there are other "methods" like LUA or Espruino but those two mentioned earlier are most interesting to me.
    Best regards from Sweden!
    Bart

  19. pitching an idea; i would love to see a general vid comparing regulators from you.
    as an amateur maker i'm always finding better ways to power my projects. 78L05, LM1117, LM317, LM2596, XL6009, TL431, LP2950, L4931 and now HT7333, RT9013, MP2307, MP1584 and MCP1720. all have a use with their different traits and easily found on ebay/aliexpress. is there a prefect regular? what should beginners put in their kit to have good options and not break the bank. explain the all important quiescent under different loads, input range, heat, spikes etc etc.
    keep up the great vids.

  20. Very nice video!!! Did you ever try with a MCP1700 LDO: http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/20001826C.pdf ???
    In the spec is only 1.6 to 4 μA Quiescent Current.

  21. Hello, which LDO should I buy to power an ESP from a single lipo battery?
    Would a diode be much simpler (don't care of completely draining the battery)?

  22. Hi Andreas. Thank you for your research and easy to understand presentations. If I wanted to reduce reboots due to power fluctuations on a wemos or nodemcu board (with onboard USB) should I put the capacitor across gnd and 5v or gnd and 3.3v? Is it even possible to use a capacitor on these boards? Thank you.

  23. Awesome video 🙂 I was wondering why my ESP12-E on a common adapter (shown in 10:28) reports 2.68V, also the initialization was rarely not successful (crashes, boot loops etc.). I just tried a 470uF capacitor, it is now stable and reports 3.0V but surely will replace with 1000uF or even 2200uF once i start moving out my project from breadboard.

  24. Hi, thanks for your videos. I learnt alot from them. could you say why you wear gloves working with these boards?

  25. I have a problem. It turns out that once programmed, at the end of the "void loop ()" I place the deep sleep command and without bridging the nodemcu makes an attempt to reboot but it does not pass the scribbles. And if I put the gpio16 (D0) bridge with RST, it goes into a reboot loop where the doodles start continuously … What am I doing wrong?

  26. The AMS1117 and HT7333 have different pinout (SOT-89 package). Do know witch one can be used at those small white cheap expansion boards.
    I think the HT7333 you used is not the SOT-89 version, Am I wrigh?

  27. Excellent! Just what I needed, all the options in a nutshell. By the way, have you thought of using a mini buck converter the mini LM2596? How much of an inteference do you think it will have with the wifi signal, do you think?

  28. Thanks for your efforts. I'm trying to use it for IoT project. When i use a LiPo battery, i have to supply at least 4 V to my ESP-12E to work properly. When the device is on voltage drops to 3.6 V. In the deep sleep it goes back to 4 V. There is a 1000mF capacitor between the power pins of ESP. Also i pulled up GPIO0 and GPIO2 with 10K resistors. Is my module faulty?

  29. Very interesting. I never though that the simple cables/ic board resistance was an issue on so low power voltage devices.

  30. Great Video,

    as I understood for a 12V power supply the HT7333 should be good f0r 3.3V output for an ESP32, right?
    What chip could I use if I have only 24V DC available?

  31. Hello sir, Can we use TC1262 and a single 18650 Lion battery to power thr Esp8266?
    Or
    How to use a single Lion18650 battery to power Esp8266?
    Is it possible?

  32. Hi Andreas – I see you also mentioned the Wemos Mini as having a better regulator ? – as I am using Wemos Mini and Wemos Mini Pro I wanted to know if a large capacitor is also recommended – reason I ask is I seems to get at best around 48-64 hrs before I get a hardware watchdog restart occuring on my wemos no matter what.

  33. Based on your statement that the NodeMCu cannot be used for low power application, 2 questions
    Can the WeMos module be used for low power?
    What is the recommended module for low power operation that can be purchased from Banggood?

  34. Sébastien Caré-colin

    Fantastic video as every one.
    Just one question : what about ceramic capacitor compared to tantalum or electrolytic regarding leakage current ?
    Just a neewbie in electonic, but seems that leakage current is one of drawback of electrolytic cap, in contrtadiction with your video 😉
    Anyway your videos (all) help me a lot to built my project, just a few questions about capacitor and I'll be able to release it

  35. First of all, amazing videos! 🙂

    I have some quick questions/comments:
    – Can you power the ESP8266 with a 2.8V LDO regulator? I believe so, since the datasheet (http://espressif.com/sites/default/files/documentation/0a-esp8266ex_datasheet_en.pdf) says on page 7 that it operates from 2.5V – 3.6V. (I think your datasheet might have been outdated). I also read online that others have used the ESP without problems, and 2.5V is stable. Could you please verify this?

    – What's the minimum rated current of the regulator that will be sufficient to power the ESP? 300mA definitely works (I've tried this), but will 200mA or 250mA regulators work? The reason I'm asking is because in the 250mA range, the regulators can get really, really low quiescent currents compared to 300mA regulators).

    Thanks!

  36. You are so good in knowledge and your presentation skills. I am using ESP8266 – 12 Development board for experiment. I want to measure battery life, 2 AA Connected directly to 3.3V and GND. Do I need to bypass on board 3.3 V (AMS1117) regulator as this set up will feed back 3.0 volts from 2 AA batteries to output pin of AMS 1117 regulator? If so, can I just lift the out put pin from the development board?

  37. Sergio Ariel Fernandez

    Hello Andreas, thank you very much for your videos, you are the best!!
    I have this big problem, I was using de 12E, with deep sleep, and SPIFFS, with a TLV30033, because I need to use it with a battery. BUT I bought a few ESP 8266 12F, and fails, a lot, if i use another power source, works great, but not with the LDO. In the data sheet, the power specifications and the pin modes to booy from flash, are the same that the 12E, so I do not undestand why it crashes. Do you ever used the 12F?
    Thank you very much for your time.
    Best regards.

  38. Hi Andreas. I hope you can help this noob. I powered some Wemos D1 minis with a 18650 battery via the VIN. I got a few hours before they died and (maybe) over-discharged. Indeed, I had to discard one of them… My Soshine Lifepo4 size AAs arrived and I plugged one into the 3.3v on a Wemos D1 mini. At 700mah, I expected the Lifeop4 to die quite quickly. Not so. It's going strong after 4 hours. So, how come a 700mah plugged into the 3.3v input can last well when compared to a 2400mha LiPo plugged into the 5v VIN? Are voltage regulators really so inefficient? Or am I making bad assumptions?

  39. Found your video after having problems with my WeMos D1 mini with Nrf24 module attached to it and telegram client running at the same time. It would restart every 2~8 minutes having 100uF + 10uF + 0.1uF caps attached. Removing 10uF + 0.1uF caps would make the time a bit larger, like every 20minutes, but still it was not desired. Having placed 1000uF capacitor across 3.3v and Gnd the device is stable now wor the las hour. Good to be able to find relative information from professionals and enthusiasts.

  40. Mr. Spiess, earlier today I was looking around the Banggood website and happened upon items for UAVs (drones) and other RC (Radio Controlled) equipment. I noticed that many of their LIPO batteries were rated for 3.7 volts.

    What is your opinion about using these batteries and chargers for Raspberry Pi, ESP32 and similar projects?

    Thank you.
    Terry Thomas
    Atlanta, Georgia USA

  41. Hi andreas you said that the nodemcu is not capable of low power applications. But is it possible to change the 100uF capacitor across the esp8266 on the nodemcu with a bigger value and replace the regulator with the ht7333-a to make the nodemcu suitable for low power applications? … I recently did that but I just replaced the capacitor and unsoldered the regulator. I'm currently supplying through the 3v3 pin but with a 1n4001 diode in series with the LiPo battery to drop the voltage to about 3.5v… I'm currently reading about 22uA …

  42. Reactive component of an inductor is proportional to the frequency. No wonder inductors produce high voltage drop (higher reactance) at high frequency spikes.

  43. Hi! Thanks for your videos they are really helpful. However I tried a few things from your videos in one project but it kept crashing. Perhaps i missed something. I was wondering if you could check out my code and try it out in your ESP since you have the perfect environment. This way i could know if the problem is the code or if the problem is my hardware. My project uses a piezo sensor to detect vibrations through the Analog input in an esp12. You can set up different combinations of knocks to do different tasks using ifttt. "2 knocks turn on kitchen lights". "3 knocks turn off kitchen lights" The problem i had was when i knocked only ONCE, it would automatically reset. Here is the instructable i made about the project. http://www.instructables.com/id/Make-Any-Surface-a-Touch-Surface-With-NodeMCU-and-/

    However you don't have to read the whole instructable. The code is at the end of the page. I would really appreciate if you could help me out and i would be more than happy to make a good donation to your channel. Thanks in advance.

    Best regards.

  44. Hey Andreas,
    thanks for your inspiring Videos! May you do annother test like this with ESP32-Modules? I'm especially interested in ESP-WROOM-32 Modul because i want to make some battery-powered things where i dont want to waste energy to components i dont need. In the Datasheet (https://www.espressif.com/sites/default/files/documentation/esp-wroom-32_datasheet_en.pdf) they only require an 10µF + 0.1µF Capacitor – which seems very small if i compare to the 1000µF we use at the ESP8266.
    Greetings from a guy with german accent 🙂
    Jonathan

  45. Hi, andreas. i read all the comments, and ht7333 is your recommendation. The datasheet says, max output is 250mA. So is it okay? Can you explain why? Thank you btw for all your great videos.

  46. You are a gold mine, mister! Those videos are so helpful for the ESP8266 community!

    As a small suggestion, the voice is a little liniar but this is maybe from the swiss type language, anyway a little voice fluctuation will improve the overall experience.

  47. ドイティンガークリスティアン

    Hi Andreas, do you have an explanation how to implement Deep Sleep and ULP with Arduino IDE to the ESP32?

  48. Naveen kumar Mutthu

    Hello sir..
    Good informative video…

    I ve this weired problem.
    I ve 2 esp8266 modules…
    One esp8266-01
    Another esp8266-12f

    I have connected a 1000uf cap with 0.1uf cap in parallel to 3.3v powersupply… Used ams1117 for 3.3v output… Ive 5v smps connected to ams1117… It works well all the times without any issue…

    When i switch on and off conventional switches in my home.. 230v (house hold appliances) fan or light somewhere in other room. The esp in other room resets on its own… Tried with two esps… Issue repeats…
    When i switch on Electrical appliances 2 or 3 times it resets…
    Should be some emi emc issue…

    Can u plz help me to figure out??
    If you want i can upload an video of how it does…
    Thank you

  49. Hi Andreas,
    I see that YouTube is your preferred method of contact and I have a suggestion for a future topic. I'd like to know more about the pros and cons of using ESP8266 modules that don't have metal lids (ESP-01 for example). Do you have the equipment to assess the RFI (radiated and susceptibility) performance of these modules? Are they listed as not FCC approved because they failed to get approval or never tried?

  50. after adding the 1000 uF capacitor to the esp8266 power pins , what are you using as a power source , can arduino pins (3.3 v and ground ) be used ? currently we're advised from our teacher to use a 12v 5A adapter with LM2596 to power the esp8266 which to me seems kinda expensive solution for such a cheap module.
    thanku and great video

  51. Thank you very much for your kindness and knowledge and experience we have learned a lot , I am planning on using D1 Mini and powering it with AC to DC (HLK-PM01) and connect it to the 5v , or (HLK-PM03) and connect it to 3.3v , which is better ? and do i need any other component ? i.e. capacitor .. etc

  52. Please help me as the problem is, whenever the esp8266 turns on / power came, it triggeres all the relay to high state.
    That cause all the switch to turn on.
    Please tell me the solution

  53. Hi Andreas,

    I'm trying to use a 18650 battery for a 3.3v arduino project.
    Now I've been searching allot around the internet, and don't get a clear answer.
    I would prefer to purchase just one or two modules for charging and using the 18650 battery (charging seperate from operation)
    But I can't seem to find such a module/method. I'm clearly searching in the wrong direction.

    FYI, using the ESP8622 with just the 8 pins (ESP-01 I think)

    Can you or the other subscribers help me out here?
    Would prefer to have a source if possible, so I can learn something! 🙂
    much appreciated!

  54. Hi Andreas, your videos are fantastic. You pack a lot of info in there! I have a couple of questions that maybe you can help clear up for me.

    I am powering an ESP8266/Nodemcu with a 120v AC to 5v DC power supply. I am planning to step down voltage using a 1000uf cap and an HT7333 for the ESP8266 and other components that need 3.3v, and use raw 5v for some other components.

    1) I ordered 25v caps vs 10-15v caps and I can't figure out if that's going to be a problem. All I can find is that I should de-rate caps by 2-3x (consistent with what you've said), vs if there is a reason to go with a voltage rating closer to that of my operating voltage. Should I be using a lower voltage rated cap?

    2) Is there a reason to use a SOT-89 vs TO-92 – such as heat dissipation? I understanding the packaging is different – SMB vs through-hole – of course, but I'm curious if I should be figuring out how to use an SOT-89 in my prototype PCB device. I have found some commercial boards for the SOT-89 package to breadboard pin, which might help with heat. To be fair, I have done no math to see if I even need to worry about heat. My devices aren't drawing much power and I'm only dropping 1.7v. I guess I should do the math. (Note, these devices will never be on pre-printed PCB's, they're just for one-off my use (or mostly one off, some of my friends are interested now that I'm figuring it out, ha).)

    3) Would/do you do anything to clean/protect/stabilize the power from a 5v power supply to 5v devices? I am running some sensors that use higher input voltage. I would have bought 3.3v devices if possible but the specialized commercial device I needed was only available in higher-voltage.

    If you have time to answer any of my queries, I would much appreciate it. If not, no worries, I shall keep researching and watching your videos!

  55. Informative video Andreas. I have a question. My Esp module (Wemos D1 Mini) resets after few seconds every time. I am using motion sensors with it. I tried to power up the sensor from separate power supply. The ESP is powered up via a USB cable from my laptop. I tried the capacitor thing but didn't work. Can you please help with this? I need continuous data from my sensors for about 2 or 3 minutes but i am not able to do that since the ESP resets after every few seconds. Thank you in advance!

  56. Super Video! Ich kommentiere sonst nie, aber das Video ist echt informativ! Hast du Informationen dazu wie viel Dropout der Ht7333 maximal haben darf? Habe mal irgendwo was von 1 Watt gehört, ist das richtig? Also sodass z.B. 12v auf 3.3 bei 250mA last nicht funktionieren.

  57. Did you make a video testing 8266's at different temperatures?
    I have a couple of projects that will be subjected to 47c ambient temp and am interested to know what the results of that test are.

  58. Hi Andreas, congratulations for your very useful videos. I'd like to get an advise from you. I'm working in an proyect with Wemos D1 mini and I'll use the DC power shield which can be feeded with 7-24V 1A. May I use a power adapter for LED strips, input 110V output 12V 1A?
    I'll really appreciate your advise. Thanks in advance.

  59. I'm not sure how I feel about encurraging people to use milli farrad capacitors in their designs and I think other factors for reducing voltage ripple should be considered instead.

    By loking at your setup at 1:20, I see that your capacitor is placed across your voltage rails, relatively far away from your actual module. This is a problem.

    Breadboards are known to have incredible high impedance between it's connections. Impedance can be difficult to understand in detail, but it is in most cases sufficient to understand it as an opposition to changes in currents, and that the impedance increases with the distance between two circuits.

    It's likely that by placing the capacitor directly between the supply and ground pin of your module, you could half or quarter the capacitor value. This significantly reduces the impedance.

    Further, ceramic capacitors are better for decoupling due to lower internal resistance.

    TL;DR: Simply increasing the capacitance is a dirty fix to other bad design decisions.

  60. Am I understanding correctly that the 470uF SMD capacitors have no issues?
    Does this mean two 470uF SMD caps in parallel could avoid a "bulky" 1000uF THT cap?

  61. I use mainly esp8266 boards at 3.3 v for home automation stuff as all the sensors I use on them are also 3.3v Some of those sensors are a bit power hungry (gesture sensors etc) so as far as a capacitor goes Im guessing a 1000uF 10v, 16v or 25v aluminium electrolytic is what I should be using? Just about to order some from AliExpress

  62. At 4:35 it is recommended to add parallel cap (ok) or inductor in series of power lead (wrong!). You really do not want to add any more inductance.
    Power rail inductance is the reason your voltage drops during spikes. Inductor resists change of current and at power supply end you see less spikes but at the device end the current does not increase as quickly ie. voltage drops.
    Sometimes inductors are added with capasitors to form a low pass filter (like in picture at 4:35). That helps to reduce spiking/noise at power supply end. However, due to added inductance you usually need much more capasitance than if you had only added capasitors. You take this route only if you want to filter noise.

  63. Low power Node MCU: Hi – Can you make a video showing how to get low power consumption from the node MCU by removing the AMS1117 an cutting power to the serial chip and then programming from an external UART. The node MCU is good because its already soldered, so instead of soldering a new board it is easier removing the bad components of a cheap MCU. There is an opportunity for someone to build a Node MCU with a power switch to the serial chip and a HT7333 LDO. It is described in this tutorial, seeing it done in a video would be great https://tinker.yeoman.com.au/2016/05/29/running-nodemcu-on-a-battery-esp8266-low-power-consumption-revisited/>

  64. Hi Andreas, In 7:07 you are talking about micro amperes but the display shows mV. Did you mean to say millivolts or what am I missing? Thanks

  65. Hey Andreas! Even if this video is already a few years old, I got a related problem (at least I think it's related). I'm using a simple esp8266 button solution with 4 buttons. They send a MQTT message to my nodered server. It works great. The only issue is: The buttons "fire" when I want to turn down or up the window blinds in the same room. They are in no way connected. They only hang in the same power circuit of my appartment. Any idea how this might happen?

  66. Be aware that most (all whom I have asked) ESP8266 sellers in Aliexpress sell 30mm wide board which doesn't fit to 400 holes/tie points Breadboard, it is too wide. In amazon the still sell 26mm model. So be aware!

  67. Thank you for another great informative video!
    What exactly is causing the peaks you show in this episode? Is that the ESP waking up from deepsleep, processing something
    (what and for how long? with wifi or without? what currents?) and going back to sleep?

  68. This was great! Very detailed, informative. Going to be watching it just one more time 🙂 Looking forward to watching more of your videos. Thank you!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *